Automobile Tires

Marking of Tires. Car tires are made in accordance with GOST-4754-54, whereas truck, bus and trailer tires in accordance to GOST-5513-54. Some types of tires are made in accordance with technical conditions, approved by Committee of People's Farms (sovnarhoz) at the location of tire manufacturing plants. 

Sides of tires (tire-covers) and tires without inner tubes are labeled with their sizes, plants that produced them, date of manufacture, and serial number. For Example, MIV612315 where the letter stands for the plant name (M-Moscow Tire Plant, Ya-Yaroslavl, L-Leningrad, O-Omsk, V-Voronezh, K-Kirov, D-Dnepropetrovsk, S-Sverdlovsk, E-Erevan, Kya-Krasnoyarsk, B-Baku); IV-month of manufacture, 61-year of manufacture, 2315-serial number.

If the frame of the tire is made from viscous cord, then the lettter "B" (english v) also appears on the side of the tire. Tires with directional grabbers are labeled with an arrow indicating the direction of rotation.

The tires are also labeled wit the model; inner-tube-free tires are labeled as "inner-tube-free"; forsified tires are labeled as "forcified", testing tires as "testing"; GOST number, balancing mark on car tires in the shape of a triangle, circle or square (during installation of the inner-tube into the tire, the valve should be aligned with this mark).

On tires, renewed by replacing the relief, the type of repair is indicated (either I or II) as well as the trademark of the tire-repair corporation.

Short Rules on Using Tires. The air pressure in the tires should correspond to the set norms (table 13 and 14). The pressure is checked by a manometer (GOST 9921-61) in fully cooled down tires: every 5 days in cars and every 10 days in trucks. Tires should not be loaded more then allowed (table 13 and 14).

Use of damaged tires is prohibited, as well as use of tires with no grabber relief ("bald" tires); such tires require repair. It is necessary to provide proper angles of front wheel installation (table 15). In order to avoid uneven wear of the tires they should be regularly rotated at TO-2 according to a set scheme. The spare tire can be used in rotation only if it is equal to the rest of tires. Direction of rotation of the spare tire is noted by the dotted line.

 

Regular tires can not be used in temperatures under -45C. Under such conditions, special frostresistant tires are used.

If a vehicle is used in specific conditions - quarries, mining, lumber - usually, forcified tires are used.

If a vehicle is used on soft dirt road and off-road, tires with off-road relief should be used. Such tires are not allowed to be used on hard surface roads for more then 25% of total distance in order to prevent premature wear and disintegration of the tire relief. Tire with combined (universal) relief can be used on any road surface with not restrictions.

Automobile Tires (table 13)
Tire size relief texture mass, not more then, kg layers of frame type of rim maximum allowed load and air pressure in the tire with maximum load minimal allowed air pressure in the tire and allowed load with this minimum pressure Autos that use these tires air pressure in tires, kg/cm2 Static radius of rolling with full load, mm  
load, kg pressure, kg/cm2 pressure, kg/cm2 load, kg front wheels rear wheels
8,90-15 D 20.5 6 6 1/2L 820 2.00 1.40 665 ZIL-111 1.90 1.90 3705  
8,40-15 D 19.0 6 6L 750 2.00 1.40 600 UAZ-469 1.20 1.5 -  
8,20-15 D 16.0 6 6L 700 2.00 1.40 575 GAZ-M13 "Chaika" 2.0 2.0 -  
7,50-17 D 25.0 6 5.00F 750 2.50 2.00 580 ZIL-101 2.25 2.75 3805  
7,50-16 D 25.0 6 5.00F 765 2.50 1.50 500 ZIL-110 2.5 2.5 3755  
7,00-16 D 18.0 4 4.50F 520 1.75 1.50 445 GAZ-M-1 1.5 2.0 3545  
GAZ-67B 1.8 2.3  
7,00-15 D 18.7 6 6.00L 605 2.50 1.40 425 GAZ-12 "ZIM" 2.5 2.5 3525  
6,70-15 D 13.5 4 5K 505 1.80 1.40 435 GAZ-M-21 "Volga" 1.8 1.8 3355  
6,50-16 PP 21.0 6 4.50E 550 2.50 1.50 390 GAZ-69 1.5 2.0 3575  
GAZ-69A 1.5 2.0 -
GAZ-67B 1.5 2.0 -
GAZ-M-72 2.0 2.0 -
6,40-15 PP 13.5 4 4 1/2K 360 1.70 1.40 340 M-410 1.7 1.7 3315  
M-410N 1.4 1.4 -
M-411 1.8 1.8 -
6,00-16 D 14.7 4 4.00E 460 2.20 1.50 340 GAZ-M20 "Pobeda" 2.2 2.2 3435  
5,60-15 D 9.5 4 4 1/2K 410 1.80 1.40 350 M-402, M-407, M-423N, M-430 1.7 1.7 3125  
5,50-16 D 14.0 4-6 3.50D 365 2.10 1.50 290 M-401 (st.wag.) - - -  
5,20-13 D 7.5 4 4I 275 1.70 1.40 235 ZAZ-965 "Zaporozhec" 1.7 1.7 -  
5,00-16 D 10.6 4 3.00D 320 2.10 1.50 255 M-401 1.8 2.0 3125  

 

Truck, Bus and Ambulance Tires (table 14)
Tire size relief texture mass, not more then, kg layers of frame type of rim maximum allowed load and air pressure in the tire with maximum load minimal allowed air pressure in the tire and allowed load with this minimum pressure trucks and buses that use these tires air pressure in tires, kg/cm2 Static radius of rolling with full load, mm
load, kg pressure, kg/cm2 pressure, kg/cm2 load, kg front wheels rear wheels
18,00-32 PP 348 24 13" 8,200 4.25 - - MAZ-530, MAZ-525 4.25 4.25 -
17,00-32 PP 340 24 13" 7,800 5.00 - - MAZ-525 5.0 5.0 -
15,00-20 - 134 18 11.25" 4,000 4.00 - - MAZ-502, KrAZ-214 3.0 4.0 -
14,00-20* - 124 10 10.0G 2,500 3.20 0.50 2,500 UralAZ-375 3.2-0.5 3.2-0.5 -
12,00-20 K (D) 90 14 8.37V 2,400 5.50 4.25 2,100 MAZ-200, MAZ-500, MAZ-504 4.25 5.5 5295
PP 98.5 5355
YaAZ-210, KrAZ-219, MAZ-200V, MAZ-200M 4.3 5.5
MAZ-205, MAZ-503 4.3 5.0
YaAZ-210G, YaAZ-210E KrAZ-222 4.3 4.3
16 8.5B ZIU-6 6.0 6.0
12,00-20* - 71 8 9.00 1,750 3.00 0.50 1,750 ZIL-131 3.0-0.5* 3.0-0.5* -
330-20 PP 105 14 8.37V 2,500 5.00 4.00 2,100 MAZ-200, MAZ-200V, MAZ-500, MAZ-504 4.0 5.0 5455
K 99
99 YaAZ-210G,YaAZ-210E, KrAZ-222 4.0
99 MAZ-205, MAZ-503 4.5
320-20 D 83 14 8.37V 2,450 5.25 4.25 2,050 ZIL-127 5.3 4.3 5255
12,00-18* - 69 8 8.00CV 1,580 3.00 0.50 1,580 GAZ-67B 3.0-0.5* 3.0-0.5* -
9.00 ZIL-157 3.5-0.5* 3.5-0.5*
11,00-20 D 73.5 12 7.33V 2,050 5.00 3.50 1,700 ZIL-154 6.0 4.5 5075
ZIL-158 5.0 3.8
11,00-18 - - 10 8.00V 1,650 3.50 0.70 1,650 GAZ-66 3.0 4.0 -
11,00-16 - - 6 8.0 - - - - GAZ-62 1.8-0.5* 1.8-0.5* -
10,00-20 D 72.5 12 7.33V 1,800 5.00 3.50 1,500 ZIL-155 5.0 4.0 5005
LAZ-695, LAZ-695B 5.0
10,00-18 PP 68 12 6.00T 1,700 5.00 3.50 1,400 GAZ-63, GAZ-63A, GAZ-63D 3.5 5.0 4685
9,75-18
9,00-20 PP 62 10 1,550 4.50 3.25 1,250 ZIL-150, ZIL-156, ZIL-585, ZIL-166, ZIL-166A 3.5 4.5 4855
D 58 ZIL-164, ZIL-164G - - 4785
260-20 K 62 8-10 KAZ-600V, KAZ-601, KAZ-606 - - 4905
7.00 ZIL-130 3.5 4.5 -
8,40-15 K 19 6 6L 750 2.00 1.40 600 UAZ-450, UAZ-451, UAZ-452 all their and modifications 2.2 2.2 -
UAZ-450A 1.5
8,25-20 PP 53 10 5.00S 1,300 4.50 2.75 1,000 UralAZ-355M 3.0 4.5 4635
ZIL-151 4.5 3.0
PAZ-652 4.5 4.5
6.0B GAZ-53 3.0 3.8
8,25-15 D - 14 5.00S 2,018 7.00 - - heavy trailers - - 3005
7,50-20 PP 42 8 5.00S 1,000 4.00 2.75 850 GAZ-51, GAZ-51P 3.0 3.5 4435
D 39 GAZ-93, GAZ-93A 4365
PAZ-651, PAZ-651A, KAvZ-651 3.0 4.0
PAZ-353 2.8 2.8 4465
6.0B UAZ-52 3.0 3.5 4435
210-20 K 50 10 5.00S 1,200 5.00 4.00 1,000 Ural-5, Ural-355, Ural-352 4.0 5.0 4565
PAZ-652 5.0 5.0
RAF-251 4.5 4.0
200-20 K 39 8 5.00S 1,000 4.0 2.8 850 GAZ-51, GAZ-51P, GAZ-51A, GAZ-93, GAZ-93A 3.0 3.5 -
PAZ-651, PAZ-651A, KAvZ-651 3.0 4.0
PAZ-653 2.8 2.8
34x7 D 44 10 5.00S 1,200 5.75 4.00 1,000 Ural-5, Ural-355, Ural-352 5.0 5.8 4505
PP -
* Tires with controlled air pressure (from cabin); for driving over soft surfaces the pressure can be lowered down to 0.5 kg/cm2 with according reduction of speed.
NB for tables 13 and 14
1. In the first column specifying the tire size, the first number (before the "-" dash) stands for the width of the tire profile in inches (e.g. 12,00 or 8,90) or in millimeters (e.g. 260 or 330); the numbers following the "-" dash stand for diameter of the rim in inches (e.g. 20 or 15). If there is a multiplication sign (x) between the numbers then the first number denotes the outside diameter in inches (e.g. 34), and the second the width of the tire profile in inches (e.g. 7).
2. The width of the rim, on which the tire is put on, and the height of the edge that is tucked into the rim are classified with numbers and letter combinations. The numbers give the width of the tire in inches; the letters-height of the tuck-in portion according to the data below. 
For deep rims For shallow rims
C 0.625" 15.9 mm P 1.000" 25.4 mm
D 0.687" 17.5 mm R 1.125" 28.6 mm
E 0.780 19.8 mm S 1.312" 33.3 mm
F 0.875" 22.2 mm T 1.500" 38.1 mm
L 0.850" 21.6 mm V 1.750" 44.5 mm
I 0.680" 17.3 mm W 2.000" 50.8 mm
K 0.770" 19.5 mm      
M 0.925" 23.5 mm      
3. Tires 12,00-20 are allowed to be mounted on rim 7.33V
4. Using tires 12,00-20 on YaAZ-200 or MAZ-200, the load on each tire should be no more then 2,500 kg.
5. The specified air pressure should be followed regardless of new or repaired tires, climate conditions and must be within 0.1 kg/cm2 for cars and 0.2 kg/cm2 for trucks.
6. Types of relief texture: D-road, K-combined (universal), PP-off road capability.
7. The air pressure in tires of semi-trailers and trailers should be the same as air pressure in the rear wheels of the tractor with which it is working or should be chosen according to the load on the tires.

 

Angles of mounting of steering wheels (not the steering wheel) (table 15)
Model Angle of wheel misalignment Angle of wheel convergence longitudinal inclination of king pin transverse inclination of king pin angle of turn of outside wheel at 20 turn of inside wheel, ***
from, to, from, mm/ * to, mm/ ** from, to, from, to,
ZAZ-965 "Zaporozhec" 020' 1 1/007' 2/013' 230' 420' 17
M-401 0 1 1.5/012' 2.5/018 030' 030' 7 8 1845'
M-402, M-407, M432N, M-430 020' 120' 1/006' 3/018' 1 3 650' 750' 1725'
M-403, M-408 010' 110' 1/006' 3/018' 020' 120' 610' 710' -
GAZ-M-20 "Pobeda" -030' 030' 1/007' 2.5/020' -1 1 510' 650' 1950'
GAZ-M-21 "Volga" -030' 030' 1.5/010' 3/025' -1 1 520' 640' 1830'
GAZ-12 "ZIM" -030' 030' 1/006' 2.5/020' -1 1 510' 650' 1830'
GAZ-M-13 "Chaika" -030' 030' 1.5/010' 3/025' -1 1 330' 430' -
ZIL-110 right wheel 015' 045' 0/0 4.5/035' -030' 1 2 3 16
left wheel 0 1
ZIL-111 right wheel 0 030' 1.5/010' 2.5/025' -030' 1 430' 530' -
left wheel 015' 045'
UAZ-451 and all modifications 130' 1.5/010' 3/027' 230' 330' 4 5 1830'
GAZ-69, UAZ-69, UAZ-450, UAZ-452 430' 530'
M-410, M-411 115' 145' 1/006' 3/018'
GAZ-M-72 1/007' 2.5/020' 19
            (table 16 - trucks)
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
* convergence of wheels is measured in mm on the tire protuberance at 200 mm above the ground level.
** angle of wheel convergence is measured on special stands.
*** on a left tern, the left wheel is the inside one; on a right turn, the right wheel is the inside one.

 

When pre-used tire covers are given out, they should be chosen so that the wear of the relief is the same on all tires. The difference in wear of the rear double tires (on trucks) should be no more then 5 mm if measured by the outside diameter of the tire cover.

Tires, with renewed relief, should be mounted on the rear axle of a vehicle or on any wheel of a trailer. After at least 1,000 km of their use, these tires can be used on any wheel (including the front) and can be included in the tire rotation scheme.

Tires, with renewed relief, are prohibited from being mounted on front wheels of cars, buses, or trolleybuses.

Mounting of different tires (e.g. Road and Cross country tires) on the same axle is NOT allowed.

Storage of tires. Tire covers and inner tubes should be kept in a dry place at -10 - +25C, the air humidity should be 50-60%, and they should be protected from the sun.

Tire covers are stored in vertical position; however, they should be rotated every 2-3 months to change the point of support. Inner tubes are stored slightly inflated inserted into tire covers, or on hangers with rounded shelves. In the latter case, they should be rotated every 1-2 months. Mounting and dismounting of car tires and mounting of truck tires should be done on special tire machine-tool.

Inner-tube-free tires. These tires differ from regular ones in that they lack the inner tube and have air tight layer on the inside surface and tightening layer on the sides.

In 1957 serial manufacture of domestic inner-tube-free tires started for GAZ-M-20 "Pobeda" [6,00-16], and from 1958 for ZIL-111 [8,90-15], GAZ-M-21 "Volga" [6,70-15], M-407 and M-402 [5,60-15] and GAZ-M-13 "Chaika" [8,20-15].

Such tires are mounted on regular deep rim, connected with the main part of the wheel disc by welding. The valve on the disk is made air-tight with 2 tightening rubber washers and a metal nut and washer.

The main benefits of using such tires are: (1) Increased reliability, making for a safe vehicle movement, (2) shorter time require in repair of such tires, (3) less heating up during wheel rotation.